Most wolves of the Sierra Morena Mountain Range are found in Sierra Morena Oriental, mainly in a strip of land between Fuencaliente and Despeñaperros mountain pass (Jaén and Ciudad Real provinces).A few individuals still survive in Sierra de Hornachuelos (Córdoba) while in Western Sierra Morena wolves might finally have extinguished. We have estimated 6-10 breeding pairs in Sierra Morena, i.e. About 50 wolves.
The population trend is decreasing. Taking into account their isolation, the wolf population in Sierra Morena is considered endangered. From 1985 to 1987, 29 wolves were known to be killed by men. Damage to livestock in 1987 has been estimated in about 3,750 US.
The only obvious reason for wolf declining is illegal killing in private estates to prevent damage game species. Nevertheless we have estimated that maximum wolf predation would only affect 0.3-0.7% of red deer population.
Wolf problems in private estates are discussed. We suggest to compensate the scarce damage to livestock in Ciudad Real and to implement recovery plans in the Authonomous Communities of Castilla La Mancha and Andalucía.